Scourging was relegated to those who were condemned to be executed, and it was administered immediately prior to the execution. When a person was subjected to this type of beating, all of the “safeties” were taken off. In short, the rules of engagement were eliminated. When a person was scourged, there could be as many as six people involved in the beating process. When an individual was scourged, there was no limit to the number of lashes an individual could receive. It was also not uncommon for implements such as sticks, rods, and similar items to be used, in addition to the cat-of-nine-tails.
A quick aside, for those who do not know about Roman whips, there were several designs. Some were nothing more than cords that had knots in them that were designed to inflict pain and injury but not necessarily causing massive tissue damage (they still were formidable, though). The Romans also used a cat-of-nine-tails, which were whips that had several wide bands of leather that were lashed together to a handle, and these leather strips usually contained metal objects embedded throughout them…some of which were shaped with spikes similar to western spurs in order to inflict intense damage. At the end of each leather piece, they often contained heavier pieces of metal or long hooks that would embed into the flesh with each strike. These were designed to inflict deep tissue damage and to inflict maximum pain to the individual, and they would often rip through flesh and tear it away. The cat-of-nine-tails was frequently used in scourging because the multiple leather strips would cause more damage with fewer strikes.
This is what Jesus was beaten with (though I would guess He was also beaten with possibly the full gambit of instruments available to the punishers). Under scourging “rules”, the beating was not limited to the region of the back but could be given to any part of the body. Now I realize that if a conventional whip was used for punishment, the laws of motion would potentially propel the whip around the individual onto their side or slightly forward into their chest. This is not what I’m describing with scourging.
With scourging, it was left to the administrator of the punishment how that punishment was meted out and how long it continued! If he wanted to prolong it for an extensive amount of time, he did, and if he decided to allow the punishers to beat on that individual’s chest or stomach, they would roll the individual over and continue with the same vehemence as before. Basically, there was nothing off limits where a prisoner could be beaten…not even in the genitals or face.